About CPS / SCP
About the Founder by Len Monkman
Our founder John Simkins is indeed a remarkable individual. In one of our issues I hope to give you a brief history of his life (to-date!) but with limited space I would like to point out that to start a new society in one’s eightieth year is itself remarkable.
John is an OHA Master Gardener as many of you will know, who specializes in peonies growing about 1200 of them around his home and maintaining a hive of bees to ensure fertilization. He is a past President of the American Peony Society and also the Oakville Horticultural Society (more than once), a past director of the RBG and OHA and a professional member and past Director of the Garden Writers of America. He finds time to write a weekly column for the Oakville Beaver. In his “spare time” he serves his church as a bell ringer, prayer giver, reader and chalice bearer and sets up coffee service for the mid week morning service.
On top of all this he also does volunteer Horticultural Therapy at the Oakville hospital with geriatric patients. As has been said many times “If you want something doing ask a busy person?” That would be John.
About the Society
The Canadian Peony Society was formed in January 1998. Our Constitution was adopted at the first Annual meeting in June 98.
Our aims are: to promote the growing, improving and use of peonies in the garden and for home decoration; to encourage peony breeding to produce distinctly Canadian peony hybrids; to locate and record locally bred peonies, and produce a national registry of collections and their location; and, to sponsor an annual peony show and encourage regional shows.
The Society’s activities include: an online discussion group on Yahoo; plant sales; a seed exchange; and an annual national flower show. In addition, regional chapters of the Society are being formed, whose activities include local educational meetings, garden tours, and root sales. There is an active Breeding Program and a Heritage programme is being organised. Membership is open to anyone with an interest in peonies.
Enquiries about the Canadian Peony Society may be directed to email@example.com.
Au sujet de la Société canadienne de la pivoine
La Société canadienne de la pivoine fut créée en janvier 1998. Notre Constitution fut adoptée durant la première réunion annuelle en juin 98.
Notre but est de promouvoir la culture, l’amélioration et l’utilisation des pivoines dans l’aménagement de nos jardins; d’encourager l’hybridation des pivoines de façon à obtenir des pivoines typiquement canadiennes, de localiser et d’enregistrer les pivoines développées chez-nous et de créer un registre national des collections et de leur localisation et enfin offrir une exposition annuelle des pivoines et encourager des expositions régionales.
Les activités de la Société incluent un groupe de discussion sur Yahoo, la vente de racines, l’échange de graines et une Exposition florale nationale annuelle (Annual National Flower show). De plus des filiales régionales de la Société sont en développement; leurs activités incluent des réunions locales éducatives, des visites de jardins et la vente de racines. Il existe un programme d’hybridation en pleine activité et un programme Patrimoine est en cours d’organisation, La Société accueille autant les novices que les spécialistes des pivoines.
Flower Forms in Peonies
by Reiner Jakubowksi
There are five basic flower forms generally acknowledged to occur in herbaceous peonies. Unfortunately, the demarcation where one form leaves off, and another begins, is not always distinct, nor sharply defined.
Some varieties may express themselves as different forms one year to the next in response to weather or nutrient levels, and other varieties defy flower form classification because they display two or more forms on the same plant during any given season. The following is an attempt to clarify flower forms, at least in my own mind.
This is the basic simple peony with a number of petals surrounding a center composed of functional stamens and carpels.
Five petals is the normal number found in wild peonies but cultivated varieties generally have more than this, often nine to twelve. Even with twelve petals they may start to overlap with the semi-doubles for show purposes. Singles have pollen-bearing anthers and there is a sharp demarcation between petals and the stamens in the centre.
Examples include: ‘Sea Shell’, ‘Krinkled White’, ‘Pico’, ‘White Wings’, ‘Dawn Pink’, ‘Josette’, ‘America’, ‘Spellbinder’, ‘President Lincoln’, ‘Scarlet O’Hara’.
This form very much resembles the singles to many people. Closer examination of the anthers reveals that there is no free pollen. This results in a flower that has the simplicity in form of a single while maintaining the petals in pristine condition unsoiled by dropped pollen.
The Japanese people prized these characteristics and many of the first peonies of this type were imported from Japan.
The stamens have begun the transformation towards doubling, and pollen, though often present, is encased in tissue and unavailable, but it has been excised and used in cross-pollination by some peony breeders, notably Edward Auten Jr.
Anthers are the pollen bearing structures of the flower and they are supported on slender stalks termed filaments, which taken together make up the stamens.
In the Japanese form the filaments have broadened and flattened to some degree and the anthers are incompletely developed, also called abortive by some authors. The transformed stamens at this stage are termed staminodes and these are the distinguishing characteristic of Japanese form peonies.
During World War II there was some pressure to rename this flower form and the term most preferred at the time was “Staminodal”. A descriptive term such as this may have helped avoid much of the confusion and error with which we have to deal today when talking about “Japanese” and ‘Anemone” forms. As a result it is unreliable to depend on published registration information to determine flower form where Japanese and Anemone types are concerned.
Staminodes may be in a colour contrasting with the guard petals. Almost invariably the edges, especially at the tip, are yellow, representing what remains of the pollen or its pigments. Even when the staminodes are yellow all over, close examination will reveal either a change in shade or texture along the edges.
Examples include: ‘Westerner’, ‘Sword Dance’, ‘Nippon Brilliant’, ‘Nippon Beauty’, ‘Shaylor’s Sunburst’, ‘Rosaurea’
These blooms represent the next progression in “all-over stamen transformation” doubling (the Japanese form being the first stage).
The staminodes have transformed even further and have lost any resemblance to the filaments and anthers from which they were derived. They look more petal-like, albeit very narrow in many cases, and are now referred to as petalodes, or sometimes petaloids by some authors.
Petalodes are almost always a single colour throughout, which can be the same as the guard petals or a contrasting colour, often yellow or white.
Many of the Anemone type peonies have a strong superficial resemblance to the Japanese form and this, along with a few other factors, has resulted in most of them being registered as Japanese.
Anemones seem to have been ignored ever since Alice Harding wrote (about 1920) that there were very few good examples of this form. Much has changed since then and today some of the most striking peonies are to be found in this class.
The American Peony Society Handbook of 1953 describes anemone type peonies in an adequate manner, yet in that same document where representatives of the various types are listed, Anemones are nowhere to be found.
Instead, it lists “Novelties. All distinctly different Japanese.”, and includes as examples: ‘Bowl of Beauty’, ‘Break o’ Day’, ‘Do Tell’, ‘Dragon’s Nest’, ‘Fancy Nancy’, ‘Gay Paree’ and ‘Prairie Afire’.
Add to these ‘White Cap’ and ‘Butter Bowl’ and you would have a fine collection of distinctive and interesting peonies for the garden.
These have a profusion of outer petals that are derived from the transformation of stamens. The transformation begins at the outer edges of the boss of stamens and proceeds towards the centre but always there are functional stamens remaining. The better forms have a distinct centre made up of pollen bearing stamens and functional carpels.
‘Minnie Shaylor’, ‘Marie Jacquin’, ‘Miss America’, ‘Rare China’, ‘Red Goddess’, ‘The Mighty Mo’, ‘Lady Alexandra Duff’, ‘Silvia Saunders’, ‘Helen Matthews’, ‘Alexander Woollcott’.
All superficial evidence of stamens is normally lacking in doubles since most of these have been fully transformed into petals. Careful searching may turn up a few in much reduced numbers but typically, when present, they are not seen unless carefully looked for.
Functional carpels are present in some varieties but absent, due to complete transformation, in others.
In the days when doubles were so highly esteemed, almost to the exclusion of all other forms, there were crown, bomb, semi-rose, and full rose doubles designated. Today the American Peony Society distinguishes only the bomb type, in which the guard petals are longer than the transformed petals, as distinct from the others for show class purposes.
The CPS does not yet have separate classes for the bomb doubles.
Examples include:‘Red Charm’, ‘Sarah Bernhardt’, ‘Karl Rosenfield’, ‘Festiva Maxima’, ‘M. Jules Elie’, ‘Kansas’, ‘Ann Cousins’, ‘Louise Lossing’, ‘Shannon’
The following is quoted from the Ontario Judging and Exhibiting Standards for Horticulture and Floral Design, 2003 Edition.
Five basic flower forms are generally acknowledged. Sometimes classes are combined into one when the number of entries dictates such action. For instance, doubles are sometimes shown with semi-doubles in one class and anemones are usually shown with the Japanese form though some anemones are shown as doubles. Three peonies, when shown, may be entered under ‘Flowering Shrubs’ or in their own class in the Peony section.
Single: Peony with 5 or 10 petals (sometimes more) surrounding a centre composed of stamens and carpels. Singles have pollen-bearing anthers. Examples: ‘Sea Shell’, ‘Krinkled White’.
Japanese: This form very much resembles the singles. Closer examination of the anthers reveals that there is no free pollen. The stamens have begun the transformation towards doubling, and pollen, though often present, is encased in tissue and unavailable. Examples: ‘Flying Tiger’, ‘Snowy Hills’. The filaments, which support the anthers, have also become some-what flattened. These transformed stamens are termed staminodes and are usually coloured with a yellow edge or tip. Examples: ‘Westerner’, Sword Dance’.
Anemone: These blooms represent the next progression in doubling. The staminodes have transformed even further and have lost any resemblance to the filaments and anthers from which they were derived. They look more petal-like, albeit narrower, and are now referred to as petaloids. They tend to be of one colour, which can be the same as the guard petals or a contrasting colour, often yellow or white. Examples: ‘Gay Paree’, White Cap’.
Semi-Double: These have a profusion of petals but always have pollen-bearing stamens and carpels. Examples: ‘Minnie Chiller’, ‘Marie Jacqui’, ‘Miss America’.
Double: Evidence of stamens and carpels is normally lacking since these have been fully transformed into petal. Careful searching may turn up a few of these structures in much reduced form. Typically, when present, they are not seen unless carefully examined. Examples: ‘Red Charm’, ‘Sarah Bernhardt’.
Points to consider
- In Singles and Japanese, the outer petals should form a cupped pattern.
- Stamens and/or staminodes should be firmly held to make a compact centre.
- Singles, Japanese and Anemone forms look best when freshly opened while they still retain a cupped form.
- Doubles should have recurved petals to form a fine rosebud centre. doubles generally need to be fully open when judged.
Conditioning and Grooming:
- Specimens should be disbudded unless schedule calls for buds or multiple bloom on one stem.
- All leaves except the uppermost are typically removed.
Pests & Disease
Recognizing Root Knot & Lemoine Disease
by Don Hollingsworth, APS Director – Maryville, Missouri in cooperation with the Canadian Peony Society.
Photos & editing by Reiner Jakubowski
The food storage roots of well-grown healthy peonies will generally by symmetrical in outline and in cross section, smooth of surface. If there are branch storage roots, expect them to be smaller but otherwise similar. Also, by late summer, as we get into digging season, expect the current year feeder roots (those which have not taken on food storage character) to be mostly gone. New white feeder roots will be showing on peonies dug in later autumn when cool moist soil enables the next growth cycle to get underway. Peony roots showing distortion of growth may signal disease.
When cleaning peony roots for processing, seeing sequenced lumps of varying sizes that are interrupting the expected straight surface suggests Lemoine Disease (Figure 1, red arrow). Confirm the diagnosis by cutting across a lump.
On the exposed face of the cut will be seen an irregularly shaped inclusion, usually surrounded by healthy tissue (Figure 1a). The inclusion color will be light-yellow, of smooth texture. Normal tissue is an opaque milky-white, rich with starch. The infected plant may or may not be suspected unless looking at the roots upon being dug and cleaned.
Known only in peonies, I find no modern plant pathology research on Lemoine Disease. The name “Lemoine Disease” was given by early growers upon finding it in plants received from Europe. Not all plants are affected alike. For example, insofar as I am aware there is no stock of peony (lactiflora) ALICE HARDING that is free of Lemoine symptoms, nevertheless the plant is very vigorous and flowers beautifully. Another peony lifted because of poor growth was found to be in the last stages of deterioration, the roots “pitted” where the infection sites had become open to the surface (Fig 1 above -White arrow- the onset of pitting)
In the past, virus origin was speculated. But what is the vector? In 40 years I have never seen evidence of natural transfer between adjacent plants. Close trimming to eliminate symptoms has never yielded a healthy plant for us. With few exceptions, plants found infected here got to incineration or landfill. The exceptions are plants held for breeding interest, there being no evidence of transmission through seeds. My observations lead me to conclude transfer is largely or entirely by mankind in sap residues on cutting tools. Sanitation is essential. We routinely dip cutting tools in ordinary rubbing alcohol as a disinfectant upon finishing each essential. We routinely dip cutting tools in ordinary rubbing alcohol as a disinfectant upon finishing each plant.
Root Knot Nematode
Unlike Lemoine lumps, root knot nematode infestation is typically first noticed upon seeing much-branched feeder roots bearing small galls (figure 2).
Each gall is a “ball” of root tissue which has grown around one or more living parasites. Branching results when the root tip is destroyed (fig 3, white arrow). Later in autumn on rootlets of the new cycle, the symptoms will be first noticed as a thickening, the branching and crooking may already be present. (fig 3, red arrow)
Figure 4 Infestation builds with egg-layering females, rootlets become much-branched and present themselves as ‘wads’ of rootlets. Root-knot nematodes are suppressed in clay soil where air spaces are small. When surviving only close to the surface they are vulnerable to winter frost. Sandy soils are deeply well aerated, enabling them to succeed at greater depth where there is protection from severe winter cold.
Severe infestations usually develop over two or more seasons. Plants will become sickly, the stems remaining thin and short, flowering fails. Accordingly, when properly planted peonies are not growing as expected it makes sense to inspect roots by taking up sample plants for diagnosis. Second season infection often shows what might be called side galls because the imperfection will show on only one side (Fig.5).
When a malady is found the first concern is to practice careful sanitation. Contain the roots and adjacent soil so they can be removed from the premises without spreading contamination. This is where that old and persistent rule, “never replant a peony without replacing all of the soil”, gains credibility. It makes no sense to put a new division into a nest of corruption. If in doubt whether the site can be successfully cleaned, grow a plant that is not susceptible for three years or more. True grasses are generally not susceptible. No known chemical treatments labelled to control root knot
Figure 5 Second season infection shows side galls nematodes are available to home gardeners.
The female root knot nematode is an obligatory and sedentary parasite. “Obligatory” in that is cannot mature nor reproduce unless it successfully parasitizes a host; “sedentary” means it becomes stationary. The nematode is genetically endowed to invade the physiology of the host plant, alter the root growth pattern around it, but is then unable to move. To accomplish this, the offspring, tiny nymphs that can move perhaps a couple of inches under their own power, must enter a growing root tip where the cells are dividing. The parasite retards the plant by preventing normal root reach, limiting water uptake, mineral uptake and competing for nutrients that would otherwise be used by the plant.
How do these tiny nymphs get spread greater distances? On infested planter pieces, in soil sticking to tools, on shoes, or animals and in run-off water. So, pay attention not only to your own plants, but also to the plants you may obtain from other gardeners or commercial sources.
The next issue is whether to try saving an infested plant. It can usually be done. The first step is to wash the roots free of soil on a grassy spot where the runoff drains away from growing areas. Remove all small roots at their point of origin – this is normal practice anyway – with the caution that infected waste needs to be carefully contained and destroyed. That takes care of the easy part.
Examine larger storage roots for any surface irregularities that might signal embedded older nematode galls. Nematode sites incorporated into bigger roots will have also grown larger with secondary infestation. Cut away root sections showing large irregularities. Small imperfections may be cored out, including any internal specks of discoloration. One member of any forked pair of roots should be removed, the point of separation examined, discoloured tissue removed.
Underground peony anatomy is made of two primary organs. One is stem tissue (the crown), the other is the roots. New root growth can come from either, but the nematode can only parasitize at the actively dividing cells of a growing root tip. True crown tissue is inherently without root-knot parasites, although nymphs can be carried on the surface and a good scrubbing may be helpful. Because the crown of a well-known peony plant normally contains substantial stored food, it is possible to produce planter pieces without support from true roots. One may also graft crown buds onto nematode free roots for added strength. Thus an observant and careful gardener may clean up infested stock and grow nematode free plants. Part of prudence will be to grow the plants in a quarantine area for the first cycle so they can be examined again before lining out with other stock.
For additional information, obtain the American Peony Society’s publications Handbook of the Peony, see pages 70-86, and APS, 75 Years see Chapter 4, Diseases and Pests.
A fungal disease more prominent especially in very wet seasons. The stems of your plant develop cankers or blacken at the base and fall over or simply wilt. Leaves may show black or brown patches and buds may turn brown and fail to open. Good culture and sanitation in the garden can help prevent or correct these problems. Plants need good drainage and air circulation, so do not crowd. Remove any affected foliage at the first sign of disease and deadhead religiously, removing all flower parts and petals from the garden. Cut off all foliage just below soil level after a killing frost in the fall and remove it and any debris from the area — do not compost. If botrytis was present the previous spring, add a shallow layer of sand around the plants and crowns. Fungal spores overwinter at the base of the plants, and spring rains then splash the spores up onto the new shoots. Removing any debris and old foliage and covering the soil with sand helps prevent reinfection.
Botrytis fungi are both saprophytic and parasitic. The spore-producing structures of the fungus develop along the base of the rotting stalks and survive in debris left in the garden over the winter. In the spring, spores form and spread to dying, wounded, or extremely soft plant tissues. As the disease progresses, a gray mold develops. The gray mold is made up of spores that are either wind-blown or splashed onto new tissues and infect.
Another blight may also appear, but the two diseases are hard to tell apart, this disease is usually fatal to the plant and infected plants should be dug up and destroyed, and the soil replaced before replanting.
Diseases of Herbaceous and Tree Peonies
by Serge Fafard, Les Jardins Osiris
The most common diseases of peonies are:
- Cladosporium paeoniae – this causes brown spots on leaves which appear after the bloom.
- Botrytis paeoniae – This produces gray mould on both tree and herbaceous peonies
- Phytophthora cactorum – a fungal disease which turns stems of herbaceous peonies black and eventually kills them.
- Powdery mildew – this disease produces a white powdery film on the surface of leaves, generally after flowering.
- Verticillium – this causes peonies to wilt.
To avoid diseases, prevention is the best solution.
- Always plant your peony roots in well-drained soil and try to build the soil up a little on top of the peony so that rainwater runs off and does not accumulate in a dip in the soil. If water accumulates around the peony roots, they will rot. Leave sufficient space between peonies so that air can circulate properly as this will reduce the incidence of mildew.
- Keep the peony clean all summer long by taking off any leaves and flowers showing signs of disease. In the fall, cut all of the stems of herbaceous peonies at about 5 cm above soil level, and throw them in the garbage. Do not ever compost any peony debris, as you risk spreading fungal diseases.
- Don’t fertilize with high levels of nitrogen as peonies prefer more potash, which stimulates flowering instead of fast green growth.
- Don’t put straw or compost up next to the stems of peonies because too much humidity in that area from either product will cause Botrytis to spread.
- In the spring, even before seeing any sign of disease, you should take preventative measures.
- As producers, we have permission from the Minister of Agriculture to use various systemic products such as Captan, Royral and Senator. We use them rarely, preferring to use biological controls.
- For those who do not have a permit from the Minister of Agriculture, you could use Safer’s Defender or Bordeaux by Wilson.
- To combat Powdery Mildew, there are always the old, traditional methods that our ancestors used, such as urine on the foliage, but the smell it leaves behind is very disagreeable! Spraying a mixture of milk and water – one part 3.25% milk with five parts water might be preferable. Alternatively, you can spray with a mixture of bicarbonate of soda and water – 1 tsp of bicarbonate of soda, ½ tsp of liquid soap, 4 litres of water.
- I’d like to mention as well something I use which is rarely mentioned when talking about treating fungal problems in peonies. It’s iodine – the type which is sold to farmers to cleanse the vats and all of the pipes used for storing and transporting milk. I get mine from Laboratoires Ultrateck, but it can be purchased from any vendor of this type of iodine.
To treat many diseases such as blackened buds, wilting, mildew or airborn botrytis, I use a foliar spray made up of 3ml of iodine to 20 liters of water. If the problem is on the roots, you have to soak the plant with a large quantity of liquid (the same proportions as set out above) so that it will destroy fungal problems on the roots. Pour the solution on slowly and allow to penetrate well.
I find Iodine is also very useful in treating nematodes. Nematodes (Meloidogyne) are microscopic worms which attach themselves to peony roots and which cause a decline in health over time. As the years pass, the stems become shorter and shorter, the flowers become smaller and paler, and the size of your plant shrinks. Nematodes love sandy, poor soil. We soak plants suspected of having nematodes in the same way as we do peonies with root problems, as mentioned above.
Pivoines arbustives et herbacées – Les maladies
by Serge Fafard, Les jardins Osiris
Les maladies les plus courantes sont :
- Cladosporium paeoniae : Taches brunes sur les feuilles sur les pivoines herbacées et arbustives, après la fleuraison.
- Botritis paeoniae : Pourriture grise chez les pivoines arbustives et herbacées.
- Phythophthora cactorum: Mildou qui fait mourir les tiges des pivoines herbacées.
- Le Mildiou poudreux produit une couche grise poudreuse sur la surface des feuilles.
- Verticillium: Flétrissement chez les pivoines arbustives et herbacées.
Pour éviter les maladies, la prévention est le meilleur moyen pour éliminer tous les types de champignons.
- Toujours planter dans un sol bien drainé, il faut que la pivoine soit sur une partie convexe du sol et non concave. Il ne faut pas que le surplus d’eau s’accumule à la base car la pivoine n’aime pas les sols trop humides.Un bon espacement entre les plants est aussi recommandé, une bonne circulation d’air aide beaucoup à réduire le mildiou.
- Nettoyer la pivoine tout au long de la saison en lui enlevant toutes les parties sèches autant le feuillage que les fleurs fanées après la floraison. À l’automne coupé toutes les tiges des pivoines herbacées (à 5 cm du sol) et les jeter aux poubelles et non pas au compost. (Elles peuvent provoquer des maladies fongiques dans le compost.)
- Éviter les engrais à trop forte quantité d’azote, la pivoine préfère les engrais avec plus de potasse, ce qui stimule la floraison.
- Éviter de mettre le paillis ou le compost près du pied des pivoines, car le paillis garde trop d’humidité et provoque du Botrytis. Quant au compost, en plus s’il n’est pas suffisamment composté, il peut lui aussi provoquer du botrytis.
- Au printemps, avant même qu’apparaissent les premiers signes de maladies, il est recommandé de faire quelques applications préventives. Par la suite, si le temps est humide il faudra répéter une fois à l’été et une autre à l’automne.
- Pour faire ces applications, ceux qui ont un permis du Ministère de l’Agriculture peuvent utiliser des produits systémiques comme le Captan, le Rovral, et le Senator.
- Pour ceux qui ne possèdent pas de permis, vous pouvez utiliser des produits biologiques ( ou presque) qui sont en vente libre. Je vous suggère le ‘Defender’ de la compagnie Safer’s ou bien le ‘Bordeaux’ de la compagnie Wilson.
- Pour combattre le mildiou poudreux ( feuillage devenant tout gris durant la saison, avec une fine couche de poudre) il reste toujours les anciennes méthodes que nos ancêtres utilisaient soit l’application d’urine sur le feuillage avec un inconvénient majeur soit la mauvaise odeur. Ou bien l’application de lait soit une partie de lait 3,25 % pour cinq parties d’eau. Ou encore l’utilisation de bicarbonate de soude (de la petite vache), 1 cuillère à thé de bicarbonate de soude, 1\2 cuillère à thé de savon liquide, mélangé avec 4 litres d’eau.
- J’aimerais mentionner un autre produit dont on parle rarement et que j’utilise fréquemment pour soigner toutes les maladies des pivoines. Ce produit c’est l’iode.Cet iode est le même qui est vendu aux agriculteurs pour nettoyer les cuves à lait ainsi que toute la tuyauterie utilisée pour la traite des vaches laitières. En ce qui me concerne je me procure mon iode à la compagnie ( Laboratoires Ultratek).
Pour traiter les maladies comme la rouille des boutons, le flétrissement, le mildiou ou le botrytis aérien, j’utilise l’iode de façon foliaire. Je dilue 3 ml d’iode dans 20 litres d’eau que j’applique (en spray) sur le feuillage des pivoines malades.Pour ce qui est du Botrytis qui est aux racines des pivoines, il faut traiter par immersion, c’est-à-dire verser une grande quantité de liquide (3 ml d’iode par 20 litres d’eau) pour que celui-ci pénètre le plus profondément possible afin de détruire les champignons des racines.
L’iode est aussi très efficace pour éliminer les nématodes. Les nématodes (Meloidogyne) ce sont des vers microscopiques qui s’attaquent aux racines des pivoines et qui peuvent causer sa perte à long terme. L’action des nématodes est favorisée par des sols légers et pauvres, donc sablonneux. Voici les symptômes qui pourraient vous indiquer que votre plante est attaquée par les nématodes. D’année en année, les tiges deviennent plus courtes, les fleurs de plus en plus petites et plus pâles, et la dimension de votre plant diminue. Pour traiter contre les nématodes, nous utilisons l’iode et nous procédons avec la méthode par immersion – versez lentement la solution dans le sol autour de la pivoine pour que ça puisse pénétrer le plus possible, afin d’éliminer les champignons.
- Planting of Herbaceous and Intersectional Hybrids
- Seasonal Care for Herbaceous and Intersectional Hybrids
- Tree Peonies
- Drying Peonies
- Hybridizing your Own Peonies
- Cutting and Storing Peony Flowers for Later Use
There are over 5,000 varieties of the common garden or herbaceous peony. Fall is the opportune time to plant your freshly dug roots. If you purchase a potted root these can be planted anytime of the year. Plant the crown at no deeper than 2″ below soil. If too low or too high it will hinder flowering. Plant in full sun with well drained soil. Never plant your peony in the same location where another peony has been planted before. Plant with well rotted manure in the planting hole and never use fresh manure. Make sure that the eyes and crown do not come into contact with the manure. Make sure to mulch your peony the first winter after planting. Remove mulch in spring when first roots emerge from soil. All peonies require a cold period (vernalization)
Spent flowers can be removed or left on, as you like. Some peonies, especially singles and semi-doubles, produce decorative seed heads after flowering. If you are collecting peony seeds, they are ripe just when pods begin to open in the fall. Peony cultivars do not come true from seed but seeds can be planted and many will germinate and grow, potentially giving new varieties.
Fertlizing may not be necessary if planted in heavy clay, however in sandy soil periodic top dressing with well aged compost in the fall helps maintain soil fertility. Apply compost around the peony but not directly on the crown. You can also use non-organic fertilizers as long as amounts of nitrogen are lower than the phosphorous and potassium. A ratio of 1:2:1(Nitrogen: Phosphorous: Potassium) is often recommended. There are no fertilizer recommendations that are applicable to all situations, but if you feel you have to fertilize, apply a half cup of 10-15-10 in early spring and another half cup just after flowering.
Once established peonies are reasonably drought resistant. If the first spring after planting is very dry the plants will benefit from receiving some water. Drip irrigation is always preferred to overhead watering as it reduces the chances of fungal diseases.
Herbaceous and species:
When planting your herbaceous roots make sure that the bud (little pink nub) is 1″ to 2″ below soil level. A 3 to 5 eye root will generally flower within 2 years of planting.
Plants will grow between 2 and 4feet tall, in a sunny location (at least 6 hours)in well drained, organic rich soil. Although peonies will tolerate a wide range of soil types. Top dress your peonies each fall with compost to improve soil structure and remember not to place compost directly on crown of plant. Never use fresh manure.
Planting Itersectional Hybrids (cross between a herbaceous and a tree peony) are a little different than herbaceous. Like the herbaceous they like full sun (6 hours or more) and well drained compost rich soil. They can grow up to 4 feet across and live for years with minimal care. Plant your root so the first eye above the crown is at soil level. Eyes may be on the crown or the stem. All visible eyes on crown should be 5 to 10cm under the soil surface and roots always pointing downward. Remember to mulch your Itoh for the first winter and never use fresh manure.
Remember to never cut down foliage right after flowering. This will remove the plants ability to make and store food reserves for next year’s growth and flowering. Peony foliage looks good after flowering, and many peonies have foliage that turns colour, providing fall interest. Foliage should remain on plant until touched by frost. In late fall cut herbaceous foliage to an inch (2.5cm) above ground, and cut the Itoh Group hybrids at about four inches (10cm). Dispose of foliage in garbage as this can overwinter fungal organisms.
Seasonal Care for Herbaceous and Intersectionals
Early Spring: If you have insufficient spring rains water. Side dress plants with compost or aged manure. If botrytis blight was present the previous season, cover ground around plant with a thin (one-quarter inch) layer of sand. Set stakes or other supports in place now.
Mid-Spring: Watch for signs of botrytis blight, removing any diseased tissue immediately. Train plants through supports. Remove side buds if exhibition-size blooms are desired.
Late Spring: Deadhead Peonies religiously and remove all fallen petals or blooms from the garden. If you wish to collect seeds leave spent blooms on your plants.
Summer: Herbaceous Peonies do best with an inch of water a week. Check for seeds from your peonies and when ripe (pods open and they turn dark brown or black)remove from seedheads.
Fall: Cut stems of Herbaceous Peonies back to soil level. Dig and divide plants now if necessary. Mulch new plantings with hay or evergreen boughs after the ground freezes.
Tree peonies are not trees at all, but, they are true peonies. They have woody perennial stems, and are relatively hardy multi-stemmed shrubs, that can grow from four to six feet high and just as wide. Their ultimate size depends on their growing conditions. There are a few that have a dwarf habit. Blooms look like crepe or tissue, in an array of colours including white, pink, red, purple, and yellow, blends of colour and flares or blotches.
Tree Peonies do best in a sunny to partly shady site, holding their flower colour longer if planted when morning sun provides most of the light, in average, well-drained, evenly moist garden soil high in organic matter. Space plants 3-feet apart for a hedge. Tree peonies rarely need pruning, except to maintain a desired shape and size or to remove damaged canes.
Bareroot Tree Peony – photo courtesy of Walters Gardens Tree Peonies are grafted plants. Plant the graft union 4 to 6 inches below the soil surface as shown in the photo. This helps the plant develop its own roots. The graft union looks like a bulge on the main stem just above the roots. After planting, only an inch or two of the woody stem may show above the ground.
Tree Peonies are slow-growing plants that reach mature size in 5 to 10 years. Try not to transplant them, as this will slow their growth as they re-establish their roots in the new location. Tree Peonies can live up to 100 years or more!
The need for fertilizer is dependent on local garden conditions and specific recommendations cannot be given. Avoid high nitrogen fertilizers. Balanced fertilizers or those designed for flower or vegetable garden use should work well. A healthy soil almost always grows healthy plants of any kind. Regular application of good compost creates a loose, friable, well-drained and well aerated soil for all your plants.
Buying Tree Peonies
In Canada there is no one currently propagating tree peonies in numbers sufficient enough for commercial production. There are some hobbyists grafting on a small scale and they sometimes offer a few, but other than that, all tree peonies available will have been imported and are most usually available in the garden centres in spring as bare root plants packaged in boxes. Almost all will have been grafted onto herbaceous roots, something easily seen by looking at the root. Herbaceous roots grow much more rapidly in diameter than does the tree peony stem to which it’s grafted. This abrupt change in diameter happens at the graft union and is an important reference point when planting the peony.
When purchasing one of these boxed tree peonies it is very important to select one that shows healthy buds, but that has not yet begun any stem growth. Buds should be firm and show a bit of pink colour. Any peony that has already leafed out should not be considered unless the vendor offers an adequate guarantee. You do not want the tree peony to begin growth until you have planted it. The sooner you plant these tree peonies, the better their chance of survival. If you can’t plant them right away, then cold storage is advised.
You may also find tree peonies offered as potted plants. Check them carefully to satisfy yourself that it is a healthy specimen, or wait until mid-summer or fall before making a purchase. Let the garden centre have the risk of growing it through the summer.
Many of these peonies are sold only by colour though you may find the cultivar name on a small paper band encircling the stem near the base. Look for this and record the name as it may allow you to find a lot of information about your peony.
You may also find roots at specialty nurseries. This will probably entail importing tree peonies yourself, but many of the American nurseries will ship to Canada. Be prepared to pay. but if you are looking for specific named varieties there is a little alternative at this time.
Named varieties of peonies do not come true from seeds, and so they must be vegetatively propagated. This is the main reason for their greater cost when compared to other common garden plants. In tree peonies this is exacerbated by the need to graft, which is a labour intensive and therefore costly operation.
Grafting is the method of choice for producing large numbers of new plants. It is a skill that is fairly easy to learn. Roots from herbaceous peonies are generally used as nurse roots, and grafting is normally done in early August, though success can be achieved earlier than this and well into fall.
Lee Valley has a tool that will make this task a little less labour intensive.
The omega-shaped cut of this grafting tool eliminates the fiddly (and often inaccurate) work of V-notch and whip grafting. As long as you have rootstock and scion of the same diameter, two centered omega cuts will fit them together perfectly, giving you a stable graft, with maximum cambium contact, ready for taping. With a good taping job, no wax or whipping is needed.
A six-sided grooved anvil keeps the cutting stock centered as you notch it. If the anvil wears over time, you can rotate it to one of the other five grooves. If the blade should dull, you have two spares for replacement. The only poorly functioning part of this tool is the bypass pruner tip. Do not expect it to make the kind of cuts you are accustomed to. Fortunately, the rest of the tool more than compensates. Order # BL132 @ $21.50.
A few tree peonies have a stoloniferous growth habit, and these lend themselves more readily to propagation by division. If you otherwise have the need to dig or move your tree peony, then dividing it can be an option at this time, but it is not a method of propagation that yields many new plants and it sets back the plant.
There have been many reports of propagating from cuttings but this method has never developed a commercial following. Reported success is very low, and much more care and attention to details are needed compared to grafting.
Seedlings will not be identical to the parent. It is from planting seeds that new varieties are born. Seed germination is not difficult but does require some readily available basic knowledge.
by Lex Landon
One of the most often heard complaints about peonies is how fleeting the flowers are. There is a way to make them outlast any other flower in the garden, well into fall, past Christmas, and even until the next blooming season comes around. Dry them.
The idea of drying peonies was first brought to my attention at our Annual Show in Regina in 2002, when Anne Leskiw of the Prairie Peony Society gave some of those attending a brief demonstration of the technique. It took me two years to manage to get some silica gel crystals and blooming peonies together at the same time, but last June I gave it a try. The results were fabulous! I was amazed at how the colours retained their vibrancy, and at how lifelike the flowers look. We had the ten blooms I dried on display at Canada BLooms and had more than one person ask how we had managed to get the flowers to bloom out of season. They thought they were fresh.
I make no claims whatsoever to be an expert on how to do this, and in fact, would like any other members who have experience with drying peonies to share with us. These are the basic steps I used.
First, acquire some silica gel crystals. These are available through Lee Valley stores or their mail order catalogue, and some craft stores. I put a quarter inch layer of crystal in the bottom of a rectangular plastic container about 8″ x 12″ in size. Then I cut two or three fresh blooms leaving about a half inch of stem. I settled the stem first into the crystals, then carefully sifted crystals over the flowers until they were completely coverd, taking care to maintain the petals in their natural position. I placed the lid on and kept the container tightly closed for about three days. Then I removed the lid and carefully poured off the crystals. It was as easy as that. Not knowing what to expect, I started with several small single side buds, moved on to a full sized semi double, and ended up trying a pair of full double flowers. All turned out very well. The next step is to get Reiner out of his peony garden long enough to build a display box for them. As beautiful a sthe flowers are, they will be set off much more attractively when out of my Tupperware.
Cutting and Storing Peony Flowers for Later Use
by Don Hollingsworth, Maryville. Missouri
Peony flowers have been long known for retaining their suitability for floral decoration after several weeks in cold storage. Prior to the technical advancements in refrigeration and transportation following World War II, peonies were a major item in the florist trade. They were shipped in iced boxcars by rail into the big eastern markets. This same durability can be used to advantage at home.
Ready-to-open peony buds can be packaged dry in plastic, until brought out for use, and stored flat on the shelves of a household refrigerator. One may be surprised at how many buds can be so stored on one shelf. When cut at the most favorable stage of development, some kinds can be held for three weeks or more and still have a good vase life.
The longest storage life is obtained at 32 degrees Fahrenheit (0C). However, a refrigerator is more like 36-40 degrees(2-4C). The cold serves to slow development of the flower. At the higher refrigerator temperature, storage life is somewhat shortened. With experience (or luck) this may be partly compensated for by cutting at a slightly tighter bud stage.
The stage at which to cut is somewhat guided by science, but in practice it is a skill that can be expected to improve with experience. For shorter period storage and with the more doubled flowers the rule of thumb is to take the flowers when in the soft bud stage. This means that when squeezed between thumb and fingers the center of the bud feels about like a fresh marshmallow. For the many-petalled, full double flowers, part of the petals will be unfurled.
The more single flower types, especially those of the exhibition classes Single, Japanese and Anemone, which open more easily, ought to be somewhat more firm than the fresh marshmallow test. The outer petals, which in these sorts are a prominent part of the opened flower form, having continued to expand in the restriction of the package may be thus distorted in shape.
The Bomb form flower, which is similar in anatomy to the singles but with much larger center petals, and the Semi-Doubles, which have looser petalage than the full doubles, also open more easily. For the florist trade channels, growers will cut buds comparatively hard. The general rule there is to cut when the bud covers are loosened and the true color of the petals is showing. Again, more double sorts must be more opened.
Cut softer, any peony opens sooner, if harder it develops more slowly. The one extreme is that they can be cut so hard that they never open.The other is that they can be cut so soft that they expend their vase life potential while yet in storage and the petals fall when taken out or too soon thereafter. A useful precaution is to cut half again or twice as many buds as you think you will need to allow for losses.
For packaging, we put the cut stems in salvaged newspaper plastic bagsSunday edition bags preferredand tie them tightly. In a pinch we use grocery plastics. The plastic is breathableallows exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Karen Gast, PhD., Extension Horticulturist at Kansas State University, who has the cut flower peony research and demonstration project there, uses the 2-gallon size zipper bags or equal. A key consideration is that you want 100% humidity around the buds/stems so that humidity loss is minimized. Frost-free refrigerators can be harsh, unless the stems are packaged adequately. Using the salvaged bags requires taping abrasion holes, for example.
The length to cut stems depends on what you expect to need. Dont take too much foliage off the plant. The fact is that every leaf removed represents a loss of growth capacity. Therefore, when one needs long stems, only a few can be taken from a plant while still protecting the ability of the plant to produce and store food necessary for performance next year. The long necked peony varieties allow more flexibility in cutting pressure than do the sorts which have flowers closer to the bush (but which are more favored for flowering in the landscape). We take 14-18 inches for exhibition flowers and shorter for many other uses.
Remove almost all of the leaves of stems to be stored, both those stems to be used in floral decoration and those to be held for competitive exhibition. This reduces bulk in the storage space and greatly reduces the surface area giving off moisture in the bags.
Humidity will condense on the inside of the bags. After the leaves have been stripped and the stem lengths adjusted, we arrange the buds in a bundle which will fit in the plastic bag, taking care that all unfurled petals are kept up-facing, and roll the bundle in one layer of newsprint. The paper keeps the buds from lying against the moist plastic.
Fungus spots on your buds may be botrytisit will continue to develop in the cold humid conditions of storage. The dramatic spoilage will sharpen perceptions for the future!
What remains is how to handle the flowers upon taking them out of storage. They will be wilted and the cut ends will have dried. Re-cut the ends to fresh tissue and give them time to freshen and open in deep water away from heat and drafts. Vase-life extenders may be added to the water, although for one- or two-day events there may be no practical benefit from additives. We place the stems to take up water and to finish opening at least 12 hours before we will set them up for viewing. Tighter buds will need additional time.
Peony flowers to be used right away will be at their best if cut before they are fully open. Condition the flowers in a cool room, out of drafts, in deep water for a few hours before arranging them for best vase life.
28747 290 Street/Maryville, MO 64468.
by Margaret Sequeira
Hybridizing is as simple as playing bee. Yes, I said bee. Hybridizing is full of wonder, leaving us full of delighted anticipation.
Choose the plants which characteristics you most admire. eg: the size of bloom from one and the height of another.
Once you have chosen your parent plants it is time to get to work!!
You need to collect pollen (stamens) from the father as soon as it begins to bloom. Place in a well ventilated and dark area on tinfoil for 24 to 48 hours to dry. Once dry the pollen will fall off the stamens and you can pour into an airtight container for future use. Most parents do not bloom at the same time. If this is your predicament once you have collected the pollen store in a cool place until needed. (refrigerator)
Once you have chosen the the mother watch the bud as soon as it starts to show colour remove petals and stamens.
Cover the carpels and stigma all over with the pollen.
When you have completed this make sure you cover the cross with a paper bag. This will keep the selection clean. After a few weeks the bag can be removed. (This can be left on as well. Many breeders have too many bags to remove and choose not to)
Make sure you keep track of your crosses for future reference. In September, collect the seeds when pods mature. Mix 1ml bleach to 100ml water and rinse seeds, then rinse in fresh water. These seeds may be planted directly to the garden.
Or you can put the seeds in a Ziploc bag containing damp vermiculite. Store them in a warm, dark room. Check seeds every week. After a few months, you should see a small white root appear on the seeds. When root has reached a half inch, place in another Ziploc bag with humid vermiculite. Place bag in refridgerator. Check seeds regularly. After a few months you should see a tiny leaf, (plumule).
When the plumule appears, remove the germinated seed from the refridgerator.
Plant in a 4″pot with potting mix. Keep in the house, in a sunny place (no direct sun) until your last frost outside. After that, you can plant it in your garden. In the fall, protect it with a mulch.
Your seedlings will take 3 to 4 years before its first flower when you will finally know if you succeeded in your choices.
Good Luck hybridizing and remember, BE PATIENT.
Frequently Asked Questions
Why won't my peonies bloom?
- Planted too deep: If the eyes are more than two inches underground, lift and replant.
- Small divisions: When very small divisions are planted flowers take longer to appear. Divisions with 3-5 eyes will reach blooming size more quickly than the much smaller 2-3 eye divisions often sold in garden centres.
- Too young, or moved and divided too often: Allow the plant more time to develop; it should be in the same spot for at least five years.
- Large clumps transplanted without proper division: Divide (3 -5 eyes per division) and replant.
Undernourished: Buds form but don’t develop. Top dress with compost, avoiding the crown of the plant. Peonies will not flourish if soil is poor or competition from nearby shrubs and trees.
- Over fertilized: Plants have deep green foliage but form no buds. Water thoroughly to was away excess nitrogen and cut down on fertilizer.
- Too much shade: Plants will be tall and lanky; replant in full sun(6 or more hours) or part shade(4 to 6 hours). An hour or two less won’t make much difference but heavy partial shade will reduce the likelihood of flowers.
- Not enough moisture: Water to bottom of roots. (Established plants will bloom even when severely drought-stressed, although not profusely.
- Root competition from neighboring trees or shrubs: Replant outside the neighbour’s root zone.
- Buds develop but fail to open: These may be damaged by late frost, disease, drought, or being waterlogged.
- Root system undermined by gophers or moles: Put in a wire mesh barrier around the bed.